Sample LaTeX file

The name of this file is texintro.tex.
\usepackage{amsmath}    % need for subequations

\setlength{\baselineskip}{16.0pt}    % 16 pt usual spacing between lines
\pagestyle{empty} % use if do not want page numbers


Introduction to \LaTeX \\   % \\ = new line
Harvey Gould \\
January 30, 2001

\TeX\ (a special symbol) looks more difficult than it
really is. It is almost as easy as $\pi$. See how easy it is to
make special symbols such as $\alpha$,
$\beta$, $\gamma$,
$\delta$, $\sin x$, $\hbar$, $\lambda$, $\ldots$ We also can make
$A_{x}$, $A_{xy}$ and superscripts, $e^x$, $e^{x^2}$, and
$e^{a^b}$. We will use \LaTeX, which is based on \TeX\ and has
many higher-level commands (macros) for formatting, making
tables, etc.

We just made a new paragraph. Extra lines and spaces make no
difference. Note that all formulae are enclosed by
\$ and occur in \textit{math mode}.

The default font is Computer Modern. It includes \textit{italics}
or {\it italics}, \textbf{boldface} or {\bf boldface},
\textsl{slanted} or {\sl slanted}, and \texttt{monospaced} or {\tt
monospaced} (typewriter) fonts.

Let us see how easy it is to write equations.
\Delta =\sum_{i=1}^N w_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2 .
It is usually a good idea to number equations, but we can have a
equation without a number by writing
P(x) = {{x - a} \over {b - a}} . \nonumber
g = \frac{1}{2} \sqrt{2\pi} . \nonumber

We can give an equation a label so that we can refer to it
E = -J \sum_{i=1}^N s_i s_{i+1} , \label{eq:ising}
Equation~(\ref{eq:ising}) expresses the energy of a configuration
of spins.\footnote{It is necessary to process a file twice to
get the counters correct.}

We can define our own macros to save typing. For example, suppose
that we introduce the macros:
Then we can write the average value of $x$ as
\lb x \rb = 3
The result is
\lb x \rb = 3 .

Examples of more complicated equations:
I = \! \int_{-\infty}^\infty f(x)\,dx \label{eq:fine}.
We can do some fine tuning by adding small amounts of horizontal
 \, small space       \! negative space
as is done in (\ref{eq:fine}).

We also can align several equations:
a & =& b \\
c &=& d ,
or number them as subequations:
a & =& b \\
c &=& d .

We can also have different cases:
m(T) =
0 & \text{$T > T_c$} \\
\bigl(1 - [\sinh 2 \beta J]^{-4} \bigr)^{\! 1/8} & \text{$T < T_c$}
write matrices
\textbf{T} &=&
T_{++} \hfill & T_{+-} \\
T_{-+} & T_{--} \hfill 
\end{pmatrix} , \nonumber \\
& =&
e^{\beta (J + B)} \hfill & e^{-\beta J} \hfill \\
e^{-\beta J} \hfill & e^{\beta (J - B)} \hfill
\sum_i \vec A \cdot \vec B = -P \! \int \! \rv \cdot
\hat{\mathbf{n}}\, dA = P \! \int \! {\vec \nabla} \cdot \rv\, dV

Tables are a little more difficult until you get the knack. TeX
automatically calculates the width of the columns.

lattice & $d$ & $q$ & $T_{\rm mf}/T_c$ \\
square & 2 & 4 & 1.763 \\
triangular & 2 & 6 & 1.648 \\
diamond & 3 & 4 & 1.479 \\
simple cubic & 3 & 6 & 1.330 \\
bcc & 3 & 8 & 1.260 \\
fcc & 3 & 12 & 1.225 \\
\caption{\label{tab:5/tc}Comparison of the mean-field predictions
for the critical temperature of the Ising model with exact results
and the best known estimates for different spatial dimensions $d$
and lattice symmetries.}


Some example of formatted lists include the


\item bread

\item cheese



\item Tom

\item Dick


\section{Literal text}
It is desirable to print program code exactly as it is typed in a
monospaced font. Use \verb {\begin{verbatim} \ and
\verb {\end{verbatim} \ as in the following example:
   public void computeArea()
      this.area = this.length*this.length;
      System.out.println("Area = " + this.area);
The command \verb {\verbatiminput{programs/}} \
will allow you to list the file in the directory
\section{Special Symbols}

\subsection{Common Greek letters}

These commands may be used only in math mode. Only the most common
letters are included.

\beta, \gamma, \Gamma,
\epsilon, \zeta, \eta, \theta, \Theta, \kappa,
\lambda, \Lambda, \mu, \nu,
\xi, \Xi,
\pi, \Pi,
\phi, \Phi,
\psi, \Psi,
\omega, \Omega$

\subsection{Special symbols}

The derivative is defined as
{dy \over dx} = \lim_{\Delta x \to 0}{\Delta y
\Delta x}
f(x) \to y \quad {\rm as} \quad x \to
f(x) \mathop {\longrightarrow}
\limits_{x \to x_0} y

\noindent Order of magnitude:
\log_{10}f \simeq n
f(x)\sim 10^{n}
Approximate equality:
f(x)\simeq g(x)
\TeX\ is simple if we keep everything in proportion:
f(x) \propto x^3 .

Finally we can skip some space by using a command such as
\bigskip    \medskip    \smallskip
The space can be negative.


Figure~\ref{fig:typical} is an eps file.
\caption{\label{fig:typical}Show me a sine.}


Helmut Kopka and Patrick W. Daly, \textsl{A Guide to \LaTeX:
Document Preparation for Beginners and Advanced Users}, third
edition, Addison-Wesley (1999).